Rainwater conservation technologies are simple to install and operate. Rainwater conservation is convenient in the sense that it provides water at the point of consumption, and family members have full control of their own systems, which greatly reduces operation and maintenance problems. Water collected from roof catchments usually is of acceptable quality for domestic purposes. Although regional or other local factors can modify the local climatic conditions, rainwater can be a continuous source of water supply for both the rural areas and poor. Depending upon household capacity and needs, both the water collection and storage capacity may be increased as needed within the available catchment area.
Cast Water quality
Commonly used rainwater conservation systems consist of three principal components which are the catchment area, the collection devices, and the conveyance system. In the most basic form of this technology, rainwater is collected in simple vessels at the edge of the roof. As the rooftop is the main catchment area, the amount and quality of rainwater collected depends on the area and type of roofing material used. Rainwater conservation using ground surface catchment areas is less complex way of collecting rainwater. It involves improving runoff capacity of the land surface through various techniques including collection of runoff with drain pipes and storage of collected water.
Government agencies try to control water pollution depending on the source of the pollution. In local communities, municipal authorities can look at an issue of water pollution control in particular; special emphasis is on properties in the vicinity of the muncipal area. Local boards can often make temporary or even permanent judgments regarding pollution levels and how to control the same. However, often due to lack of expertise, many cases may be referred to a department of water pollution control for the state or federal/central government department. Officials associated with different programs for the prevention of water pollution work together to obtain accurate information about a pollution problem, then regulate the problem by legislation according to the requirement.
Agencies dealing with water pollution control look at the several sources of water pollution, before taking a decision on the water pollution control methods to be used . One of the main sources of water pollution are the chemicals from industrial facilities. Another usual source of water pollution are nitrates and other elements from fertilizers used in several agricultural regions. Other forms of water pollution may come from houses, small-scale business sector or large corporate facilities. They can be stable (only one chemical/compound) or varying sources that require very different pollution control methods and equipment to be utilized.
Traditionally water pollution levels have been low, yet due to higher levels of industrialization and population growth, and absence of proper water treatment systems, water pollution levels have increased very significantly. Higher water pollution levels have not only resulted in health problems, it has adversely affected the flora and fauna in a region. In many areas farmers are unable to cultivate their crops ( the crop yields have reduced0 and fishermen have reported reduced fish catches due to higher pollution levels
Most of the sources of water pollution in industrialized countries occur from chemical contamination, either from the leakage of chemicals in soil or drains, or through accidental spills. Oil spills, for example, can occur in wells or water vessels and can pollute the water miles away from the location spill. Industrial plants also dump wastes into the water, although this is rare in developed countries, due to strict government regulations regarding the disposal of hazardous materials. In developing countries, pollution due to hazardous chemicals will be more common,
Water pollution is the term used to describe any unsafe materials, toxic or other substances that are contaminating a water source. This could be composed of biological and chemical substances, and the source of water can be ponds, lakes, seas, oceans, or water systems used for drinking and bathing by mankind.Rainfall consists of very pure water, but since water is a solvent, many substances dissolve in the water as it will fall on the ground
The most dangerous type of water pollution are chemicals dissipate from homes and businesses and in some cases, the human or animal waste materials. Some of these chemicals will dissolve in the water and cannot be easily removed except using chemical processes, adding chemicals which react with the dissolved solvents to form salts which can be easily removed.
Comparatively mud in the water can be easily removed using filters or will settle at the bottom due to sedimentation. The effect of biodegradable waste like organic waste will be limited, however plastics and other substances can cause many problems including flooding of cities
In industrialized countries, pollution levels of water are much lower than in the third world and developing countries. This is because of better standards of governance, high-tech systems for purification of water instead of cleaning waste water disinfected with chemicals, and purify it to make it unfit for consumption. Areas that do not have these high-tech technologies may find water contaminated by animal waste entering the water supply source or chemicals escaping from the earth into underground wells. In developing and undeveloped countries, corruption and nepotism levels are very high, with top government officials often only interested in their personal gain, not the welfare of the country. Hence if the polluting company offered a bribe to the officials regulating, they will take the money and look the other way.
Any person who considers water pollution perhaps an issue in their area, or seeing the water is being contaminated, should contact the local environmental agency, who have the powers and knowledge to take corrective action to reduce the water pollution levels. Humans and animals should avoid touching the polluted water, especially if highly polluted, The polluted water should not be used in the bathroom or water plants. In general, if the water in a particular area is temporarily unfit for drinking due to pipe breakdown, a notice will be sent to the public so that they can make alternate arrangement for getting their drinking water supply
Any toxic or foreign material entering the water can be considered as a form of water pollution. Contamination of drinking water has been associated with gastrointestinal disorders, the spread of certain diseases, and sometimes death in severe cases. Younger children, babies and elder people are especially vulnerable to water borne pollution,. The parasites may be present in drinking water supplies. When visiting a developing country, tourists are advised to bring bottled water from elsewhere to avoid the consumption of local supplies which may have a number of microbes which can cause health problems for the tourist. Local people may be able to drink polluted water without being affected. .